Car cooling system is a system to control and lower the temperature of the car engine. It maintains the optimum temperature for the engine and removes heat from the engine. It cools the engine cooling rapidly to allow it to work well.
There are two types of cooling system depending upon the cooling medium used.
- Air cooling system
- Water cooling system
Air cooling system
In air cooling system, air is used as a cooling medium to take away engine heat. Its design is simpler than that of water-cooled engine system as the heat is taken away by the air. In order to exchange heat using air the engine should have fins which increase the surface area for heat exchange. With the increase in the surface area heat transfer increases.
The air-cooling system is used in engines with less power like daily use bikes. But if the external atmospheric temperature remains low, we can use the air-cooling system for cars also. Also, air cooling system is used where water cooling system can not be used like outboard motors, aircraft’s and rotary machines etc.Air cooled Engine
Advantages of air cooling system
- It has simpler design and light weight
- Cheaper than water cooled system
- Engine is less complicated as there is no requirement for water jackets
- It does not need coolant, radiator, or pump
- Suitable for both cold and hot climatic conditions.
- Least maintenance cost
- Better engine life
Disadvantages of air cooling system
- As heat capacity of air is lower than water so it has lower efficiency than water cooled system
- Not suitable for engines that are larger in size and require efficient cooling
- Can not be used where there is no air flow like in labs or power plants
- Increasing fins area can be problem for larger applications
- Overheating of engine can be a problem
Water Cooling System
In water cooled system, water is used as a medium to take away engine heat. It makes use of thermostat, radiator, water pump, water jackets and cooling fluid like water (antifreeze liquids) to cool the engine at faster rate for its optimum working efficiency. Water is pumped in tubes using engine power via belt drives. The hot coolant passes through the radiator and heat is exchanged there. Depending upon how the cooling liquid is circulated we can have thermosyphon cooling system, impeller circulation system, pump circulation system and pressurized cooling system.
Advantages of water cooling system
- Water has higher heat capacity than air so the efficiency of the water cooling system is higher
- Low running cost than air cooled engine
- Less noisy than air cooling system
- Can be placed at any location in the automobile
- Preferred for heavy-duty engines
- Less surface is required for heat exchange
Disadvantages of water cooling system
- Expensive than air cooling system
- Liquid may leak and this can cause an overheating problem
- Reduced engine output power as the system runs on engine power
- Requires maintenance
- Complex design
Requires water for cooling and antifreeze mixt
Car cooling system